Common linking words

December 27, 2013 § Leave a comment

Here is an overview of common linking words in English.
DECEMBER 23, 2013pdf (PDF link not ready)

Advanced material, but nice for me to review.

To give examples

To give examples we can use the following linking expressions: for instance, for example, in particular

People often behave stupidly when they are frightened. Take Alice, for instance, …

We are not at all happy with the way you handled the situation. In particular, we ….

To show contrast

To show contrast you can use the following conjunctions and conjunctive adverbsbut, however, otherwise, in contrast, on the other hand.

Their front door was open but nobody was inside.

Their front door was open; however, nobody was inside.

The technology sector is performing badly. The banking stocks, in / by contrast, are doing well again.

Sam was quite rude. His brother, on the other hand, behaved very politely.

To show concession

The following conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs can be used to show concession: however, yet, nevertheless, although, despite, even though, despite the fact that etc.

The car broke down on the way. Nevertheless / however, I managed to get to the meeting in time.

Even though he has a master’s degree in English, he still can’t write a good letter.

To show similarity

To show similarity, you can use the following conjunctive adverbs: likewise, similarly, in the same way

My mother did everything she could to educate us. In the same way, we put a high value on our children’s education.

To show result

Use the following expressions to show result: therefore, as a result, thus, consequently, so, as a consequence

They have recruited more people and consequently the service is better.

The new laptops are thin and light and therefore you can carry them around more comfortably.

To indicate time or sequence

A large number of expressions are used to indicate sequence. Examples are: first, firstly, second, secondly, finally, lastly, immediately, formerly, thereafter, soon, next etc.



class notes Grammar

December 19, 2013 § Leave a comment

We need to perfect what we have done

I need to make redundant quizzes on my site. ( Call AT&T – cannot access my sites from home! )

  • Continuous – Past, Present, Future.  Very simple To Be with Gerund – need to work on using the appropriate tense quickly.
  • Review To Be and introduce additional forms
  • I need to create a short list of verbs from readings and generic lists.
  • Adverbs – introduce
  • A, An and Some, Much, Many


class notes for future 2014

December 19, 2013 § Leave a comment

Things we need to work on

1).  Writing!  Expressing personal thoughts and opinions on paper.   

  • Favorite subject in school or something that interests you
  • Something that interests you and why?  – follow up lab: Google search and take notes
  • Write from Google search notes. 
  • Leisure time #1 – what do you like to do at home alone?  If you have/had time to do it. TV, reading, phone calls, cleaning
  • Leisure time #2 – what would you do if you had time and money?  Travel, school – details about activities.


2).  Reading comprehension and discussion

  • Current events and news stories – check my feeds for material and follow up questions
  • History – world and US, Constitution Bill of Rights, Prohibition, Civil Rights.  Simple, brief written handouts
  • For me – plan vocabulary accordingly


3).  Activities that require directions: Computer Lab

Crossword puzzles, puzzles, quizzes and other excercises on computer – to learn to read, understand directions, and follow them.




Letters to Joanna

December 11, 2013 § 1 Comment

Hi.  We miss you!  

I am so glad that you are able to be home for Christmas.  I hope the weather is nice and your family is well.  We are still working hard in class, and talking a lot.  It is not the same without you.  It has been freezing cold here for a few days, 23°F.  Today is a beautiful and much warmer day.  

My husband went hunting.  He shot a deer with his bow and arrow.  So now there is a dead deer in my house.  It is cut into pieces and clean, but it is still a dead deer.  Ew!

My husband and I will attend a Christmas party.  The party is from his work, so the people from his work will all be there.  The owner of the company will be there too.  I have to look nice and act like a lady.  I have a big skirt to wear.  It is crazy.  I will send you a photo.

Take care, Toni

From Your Classmates to You:

Joanna how are you I hope that very well. We miss you please send us a photo of your country perhaps some place special for you.i hope see you on few weeks be careful, enjoy your family and your favorite food from Argentina.
sincerely Alma.

To Joanna. I miss you Joanna How are you I am happy you went home I hope you having happy holiday. We hope you come back to school Joanna .My family and I are doing well I will see you January
bye Maribel.

Hi Joanna. How are you Happy holiday. I hope you will come back. We will be very happy when you come back . We will be studying together.
bye Joanna . Your friend Ania. I kiss you.

Xmas atmosphere

December 11, 2013 § Leave a comment

Music (3 hours) and a fireplace: turns out to be somewhat annoying song presentation.

Class 11Dec.

December 9, 2013 § Leave a comment

This is the last class until 7jan? 2nd week of January.

Bring Christmas cookies, sparkling cider & water and something pine – for the smell.

I found a small decorate Xmas cookies kit.  No pine, it had no fragrance!  We may not be as productive as I intended. 🙂

We can discuss their customs while doing and eating cookies.  

A). First Hour

1). Tongue Twister

Swan swam over the sea.
Swim, swan, swim!
Swan swam back again.
Well swum, swan!

Conjugate: To Swim

2). Some Christmas themed info.
Ideas: songs, Saint Nick, customs – their counties, history – pagan origins.

The Origin of Christmas in December –


Origin of St. Nicholas 

The legend of Santa Claus can be traced back hundreds of years to a monk named St. Nicholas. It is believed that Nicholas was born sometime around 280 A.D. in Patara, near Myra in modern-day Turkey. Much admired for his piety and kindness, St. Nicholas became the subject of many legends. It is said that he gave away all of his inherited wealth and traveled the countryside helping the poor and sick.

Origin of Christmas Day

The origins of the holiday and its December date lie in the ancient Greco-Roman world, as commemorations probably began sometime in the 2nd century. There are at least three possible origins for the December date. The Roman Christian historian Sextus Julius Africanus dated Jesus’ conception to March 25 (the same date upon which he held that the world was created), which, after nine months in his mother’s womb, would result in a December 25 birth.

In the 3rd century, the Roman Empire, which at the time had not adopted Christianity, celebrated the rebirth of the Unconquered Sun (Sol Invictus) on December 25th—this holiday not only marked the return of longer days after the winter solstice but also followed the popular Roman festival called the Saturnalia (during which people feasted and exchanged gifts). It was also the birthday of the Indo-European deity Mithra, a god of light and loyalty whose cult was at the time growing popular among Roman soldiers.

As the church in Rome only formally celebrated December 25th in 336 during the reign of the emperor Constantine, who made Christianity the effective religion of the empire, some have speculated that choosing this date had the political motive of weakening the established pagan celebrations. The date was not widely accepted in the Eastern empire, where January 6 had been favored, for another half-century, and Christmas did not become a major Christian festival until the 9th century.

Matthew Stefon is the religion editor at Encyclopaedia Britannica.

‘Twas the Night Before Chistmas – get/make copies with pictures  winner!!  Need book!

3). Class activity:
Observations about America.
Likes/Dislikes, similar/different…
Do on the board as a group, possible follow up Glitter Book entry.
(Ania was frustrated as she could not write her observations in the letter writing exercise). This should help.

B). Second Hour

1).  Return Glitter Book corrected work – letter writing.  Discuss and demo letter writing. 

2). Computer exercise

write email to Joanna.  Use my email if needed.  Maybe all on single email?

Quiz using Articles – A, An, The  possibly no time.

December 4, 2013 § Leave a comment

Here you’ll learn all aspects of the English written language, enabling you to improve your writing skills in both personal and formal communications.

Whether you’re starting with the very basics such as understanding the meaning of verbs and nouns and correct apostrophe placement, or wanting to understand more complex topics such as conjunctions, syntax optimization and creative writing techniques, we have it all covered.

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